What is a general turbine?
A general turbine is a rotating machine that withdraws energy from a fluid flow and changes it into practical work. The work produced by the turbine can be used in conjunction with a generator to generate electricity.
A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, a shaft to which the blades are attached. The moving fluid moves on the blades to provide rotational energy to the rotor. This article will discuss general turbine parts according to their types.
Types of the general turbine:
General turbine parts can be classified according to the way they work. Four main types of turbines are classified according to the fluid that provides the driving force. All the general turbine types have different general turbine parts according to their functions. These four types are discussed below:
Steam turbines are used to run power generators in thermal power plants using coal, fuel, or oil. It is a machine that generates thermal energy from pressurized smoke and utilizes it to execute mechanical work on a rotating turboshaft engine. The steam turbine is more like a heat engine that significantly improves thermodynamic performance by using multiple phases in steam expansion. It is an important part of general turbine parts.
General steam turbine parts:
There are various parts of steam turbines like rotor, shaft, blades, casing, bearings, nozzle, seals, trip system, governor, casing, etc. But four major parts of the steam turbine are:
Steam turbines are fixed on a casing, and a rotor is attached to a moving blade.
The rotor is fitted inside a casing with rows of moving blades inserted between rows of fixed blades. A rotor consists of a shaft and disk joined with buckets.
Steam turbines require casing to protect against steam leakage. A seal is required at the end of the casing. For this, spring-baked segmental carbon rings are used and supplemented by a spring-backed labyrinth section for more exhaust steam.
The speed regulator controls the overall speed of the turbine. The speed regulator is designed to operate at a rated speed called synchronous speed. The machine will damage if the turbine works above the synchronous speed. It’s also one of the essential general turbine parts.
the governor is a speed control system combined with a steam turbine that works in the synchronization of the speed regulator. The governor valve examines the amount of steam flowing through the turbine.
The gas turbine is also called a combustion turbine. This turbine converts natural gas or other liquid fuels into mechanical energy. This energy runs a generator that generates electrical energy that travels to homes and business places along power lines. Gas turbines run airplanes, trains, ships, electric generators, and gas compressors.
General gas turbine parts:
A gas turbine or general turbine parts consists of three main components.
- Power turbine
A water turbine is used to convert kinetic energy and potential water energy into electrical energy: Water turbines are primarily used in dams to generate electricity from the potential energy of water.
There are two basic designs of water turbines:
- Reaction water turbine:
The blades are completely submerged in water, and the force on the moving blades is due to the combination of reaction and kinetic energy.
- The impulse water turbine:
The blade is mounted on a rotating wheel, and the blade rotates in the air except when the blade adapts to high-speed water.
General water turbine parts:
There are many parts which are used in general water turbine. These parts include stator, rotor, blade, shaft, generator, and wicket gate. A wicket gate is a significant component of a general water turbine to control the flow of water entering the turbine. Wicket gates are a series of small openings that control water flow in a turbine. When the wicket gates open wide, more water will flow into the turbine runner, which will result in higher power generation.
A wind turbine is a machine that converts wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical work. It uses the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which perform like an airplane wing or helicopter rotor blade.
There are two types of wind turbines:
i) HAWTs/horizontal-axis wind turbines:
Horizontal-axis wind tribune is the most common type of general wind turbine. It usually has two or three thin blades that look like an aircraft propeller airscrew. VAWTs have shorter, wider curved blades that resemble the beaters used in an electric mixer.
ii) VAWTs/vertical-axis wind turbines:
Vertical-axis wind turbine has shorter and broader curved blades that look like the beaters used in an electric mixer.
Wind General turbine parts:
A Wind general turbine parts consists of four major parts. It includes the foundation or base, the tower, the rotor, and the generator. Without these parts, a general wind turbine cannot work.
The tower’s height is significant for the turbine because wind speed increases with its
In other words, the higher the tower, the higher the wind speeds. That is why most turbines are designed to meet heights between 50 and 150 meters tall. Where wind is high but less load due to turbulence.
The foundation joins the tower to the ground and carries the static and dynamic burden that the turbine creates.
The generator is the central part that converts the mechanical energy of the rotor from wind to electrical energy. The structure of the generator is similar to an electric motor. A simple generator consists of two components: conductor and magnets.
The rotor blade is the rotating component of a turbine which consists of three blades and a hub (The central part to which the blades are attached). Rotor blades work as barriers against the wind. When the wind hits the blade, it makes them bend and turn on the generator, converting wind power into electrical energy.
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